3 Separate Product Lines

We have developed several different product lines based on the DCVax technology, to address multiple different cancers and different patient situations. There are two main components to each DCVax product: the immune cells (dendritic cells) and the cancer biomarkers (antigens).

All of our DCVax product lines are made from the patient’s own dendritic cells. The dendritic cells are freshly isolated, and newly matured and activated. We believe that the existing dendritic cells in a cancer patient have already been compromised by the cancer, and we believe that is the reason other vaccines aimed at the existing dendritic cells in patients have largely failed. However, the patient’s body continues to produce new precursors of dendritic cells, and these precursors (called “monocytes”) circulate in the patient’s blood stream. For all DCVax products, these precursors are obtained through a blood draw, and then (through our proprietary manufacturing processes), the precursors are matured into a fresh, uncompromised batch of new dendritic cells.

The biomarker targets (“antigens”) component of the DCVax product, which is combined with the fresh, personalized dendritic cells, varies among the DCVax product lines.


DCVax-L — is made with cancer antigens from tumor lysate (a protein extract from processed tumor cells) from the patient’s own tumor tissue. As such, DCVax-L incorporates the full set of tumor antigens, making it difficult for tumors to find ways around it (“escape variants”), as described above. This is the DCVax product that has been used in our GBM brain cancer and ovarian cancer clinical trials, and is currently in our Phase III trial. DCVax-L is expected to be used for any solid tumor cancers in situations in which the patient has their tumor surgically removed as part of standard of care.


DCVax-Direct — is designed for situations in which the tumors are inoperable — where it is not feasible or not desirable for patients to have their tumors surgically removed. This includes situations in which patients have multiple metastases, or for other reasons cannot have their tumors removed. Like DCVax-L, DCVax-Direct also incorporates the full set of tumor antigens — but it does so in situ in the tumor(s) in the patient’s body rather than at the manufacturing facility. With DCVax Direct, the fresh, new dendritic cells are partially matured in a special (patent-protected) way so as to be ready to pick up antigens directly from tumor tissue in the patient’s body, and also communicate the information about those antigens to other agents of the immune system, such as T cells. The partially matured dendritic cells are then injected directly into the patient’s tumor(s). There, the dendritic cells pick up the antigens in situ rather than picking up the antigens from lysate in a lab dish at the manufacturing facility, as is done with DCVax-L. After that, the dendritic cells in DCVax-Direct function similarly as in DCVax-L to mobilize the rest of the immune system.


DCVax-Prostate — is designed specifically for late stage, hormone independent prostate cancer. Such cancer involves the spread of micro-metastases beyond the prostate tissue. In most patients, there is no focal tumor which can be surgically removed and used to make lysate, or into which dendritic cells can be directly injected. Instead, the cancer cells are diffuse. We have developed a DCVax product line using a particular proprietary antigen — PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen) — which is found on essentially all late stage (hormone independent) prostate cancer. The PSMA is produced through recombinant manufacturing methods, and is then combined with the fresh, personalized dendritic cells to make DCVax-Prostate.

Simplicity of DCVax Products for Physicians and Patients

All of the DCVax product lines are designed to be very simple for both physicians and patients, to fit within existing medical practices and procedures, and to be deliverable in virtually any clinic or doctor’s office. A number of complex, sophisticated and proprietary technologies are required for the production and frozen storage of DCVax, but these technologies are mostly deployed at the manufacturing facility and do not entail any effort or involvement by physicians or patients.

Front-end simplicity

For all DCVax product lines, the precursors (monocytes) for the fresh, new dendritic cells are obtained through a leukapheresis blood draw. This blood draw can be done not only at the hospital or cancer center where the patient is being treated, but at any blood center such as the Red Cross.

For DCVax-L, the collection of the patient’s tumor tissue, which is to be used to make lysate and provide the antigen component of the vaccine, involves a simple kit. The kit consists of a box with a vial which has a grinder top and is pre-loaded with a proprietary mix of enzymes. Such kits can be kept on hand like any inventory item at medical centers. In the operating room, after the tumor has been surgically removed, instead of disposing of the tissue in the medical waste, the nurse or technician chops the tissue coarsely and drops it into the vial, puts the vial back into the box, and hands the box to a courier pick-up service such as FedEx’s or UPS’ life science division, or a specialized courier such as World Courier or Quick Stat.

For DCVax-Direct and DCVax-Prostate, there is no tumor tissue collection involved.

Back-end simplicity

For all DCVax-L products, administration to the patient involves a simple intra-dermal injection under the skin. All DCVax-L products are stored frozen in single doses. Such doses are tiny, and require less than 5 minutes to thaw. DCVax must remain frozen throughout the distribution and delivery process, until the time of administration to the patient, and cannot be handled at room temperature before that. Hospitals, pharmacies and physicians may need to adopt new requirements for handling, distribution and delivery of DCVax.

There are no handling steps at the point of care except thawing the frozen DCVax product to room temperature and then loading it into a standard syringe (the same type of syringe used for insulin shots). There are also no intravenous infusions. DCVax-L and DCVax-Prostate are administered through a simple intra-dermal injection under the skin, similar to a flu shot, and are just a few drops in size. With the absence of handling steps at the point of care, and the simple intra-dermal injection, these DCVax products can be delivered to patients in virtually any clinic or doctor’s office.

The simplicity for patients also lies in the fact that DCVax is non-toxic. Patients do not have to take a second set of drugs to manage side effects of DCVax.